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Aerosol control on depth of warm rain in convective clouds

Konwar, M and Maheskumar, RS and Kulkarni, JR and Freud, E and Goswami, BN and Rosenfeld, D (2012) Aerosol control on depth of warm rain in convective clouds. Journal of Geophysical Research D: Atmospheres, 117 (13).

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Aircraft measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and microphysics of clouds at various altitudes were conducted over India during CAIPEEX (Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement Experiment) phase I and II in 2009 and 2010 respectively. As expected, greater CCN concentrations gave rise to clouds with smaller drops with greater number concentrations (N c). The cloud drop effective radius (re) increased with distance above cloud base (D). Warm rain became detectable, i.e., rain water content >0.01 g/Kg, at the tops of growing convective clouds when re exceeded 12 mm. The re is determined by the number of activated CCN, N ad, and D. The N ad can be approximated by the maximum measured values of N c. Higher Nc resulted in greater D for reaching the re threshold for onset of warm rain, re*, denoted as D*. In extreme cases of highly polluted and moist air that formed the monsoon clouds over the Indo-Gangetic plains, D* exceeded 6 km, well above the 0°C isotherm level. The precipitation particles were initiated there as supercooled raindrops at a temperature of -8°C. Giant CCN reduced re* and D*, by initiating raindrops closer to cloud base. This effect was found mainly in dusty air masses over the Arabian Sea. Besides, the aerosol effect on D*, D* was found to decrease with increase in cloud water path.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Copyright of this article belongs to American Geophysical Union.
Uncontrolled Keywords: Aerosol effect; Air mass; Aircraft measurement; Arabian sea; Cloud base; Cloud condensation nuclei; Cloud drops; Cloud water; Convective clouds; Effective radius; Indo-Gangetic Plains; Microphysics; Moist air; Number concentration; Phase I; Precipitation enhancement; Rain water; Supercooled raindrops, Atmospheric aerosols; Clouds; Drops, Rain, aerosol; air mass; aircraft; altitude; atmospheric convection; cloud condensation nucleus; cloud microphysics; isotherm; marine atmosphere; precipitation (climatology); raindrop; rainwater; volcanic cloud; water content, Arabian Sea; Gangetic Plain; Indian Ocean
Subjects: Meteorology and Climatology
Depositing User: IITM Library
Date Deposited: 28 Dec 2013 19:46
Last Modified: 28 Dec 2013 19:46

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