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Atmospheric heating due to black carbon aerosol during the summer monsoon period over Ballia: A rural environment over Indo-Gangetic Plain

Tiwari, S and Dumka, UC and Hopke, PK and Tunved, P and Srivastava, AK and Bisht, DS and Chakrabarty, RK (2016) Atmospheric heating due to black carbon aerosol during the summer monsoon period over Ballia: A rural environment over Indo-Gangetic Plain. Atmospheric Research, 178-17. pp. 393-400.

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Abstract

Black carbon (BC) aerosols are one of the most uncertain drivers of global climate change. The prevailing view is that BC mass concentrations are low in rural areas where industrialization and vehicular emissions are at a minimum. As part of a national research program called the “Ganga Basin Ground Based Experiment-2014 under the Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement Experiment (CAIPEEX) Phase-III” of Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India, the continuous measurements of BC and particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, were conducted in a rural environment in the highly-polluted Indo-Gangetic Plain region during 16th June to 15th August (monsoon period), 2014. The mean mass concentration of BC was 4.03 (± 0.85) μg m− 3 with a daily variability between 2.4 and 5.64 μg m− 3, however, the mean mass PM concentrations [near ultrafine (PM1.0), fine (PM2.5) and inhalable (PM10)] were 29.1(± 16.2), 34.7 (± 19.9) and 43.7 (± 28.3) μg m− 3, respectively. The contribution of BC in PM1.0 was approximately 13%, which is one of the highest being recorded. Diurnally, the BC mass concentrations were highest (mean: 5.89 μg m− 3) between 20:00 to 22:00 local time (LT) due to the burning of biofuels/biomass such as wood, dung, straw and crop residue mixed with dung by the local residents for cooking purposes. The atmospheric direct radiative forcing values due to the composite and BC aerosols were determined to be + 78.3, + 44.9, and + 45.0 W m− 2 and + 42.2, + 35.4 and + 34.3 W m− 2 during the months of June, July and August, respectively. The corresponding atmospheric heating rates (AHR) for composite and BC aerosols were 2.21, 1.26 and 1.26; and 1.19, 0.99 and 0.96 K day− 1 for the month of June, July and August, respectively, with a mean of 1.57 and 1.05 K day− 1 which was 33% lower AHR (BC) than for the composite particles during the study period. This high AHR underscores the importance of absorbing aerosols such as BC contributed by residential cooking using biofuels in India. Our study demonstrates the need for immediate, effective regulations and policies that mitigate the emission of BC particles from domestic cooking in rural areas of India.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Copyright of this article belongs to Elsevier
Uncontrolled Keywords: Black carbon; Residential cooking; Biofuels; Radiative forcing; Rural IGP; South Asia
Subjects: Meteorology and Climatology
Depositing User: IITM Library
Date Deposited: 08 Apr 2017 07:04
Last Modified: 08 Apr 2017 07:04
URI: http://moeseprints.incois.gov.in/id/eprint/4402

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