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Study of Outdoor and Indoor Exposure to Particulate Matters on Students of Banaras Hindu University and city side over Varanasi, India

Tiwari, Shani and Tiwari, S and Singh, AK (2015) Study of Outdoor and Indoor Exposure to Particulate Matters on Students of Banaras Hindu University and city side over Varanasi, India. Earth Science India, 8. pp. 79-99.

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Exposure to particulate matters (PM) has significantly detrimental effect on human health, particularly the respiratory and cardiovascular system and climate. In view of the above, the mass concentrations of PM were measured in indoor and outdoor over Banaras Hindu University (BHU) and city side of Varanasi in the month of February, 2011. It is the first attempt to monitor real time aerosol concentrations with high resolution at different micro-environments over Varanasi. During the study period, the mean mass concentrations of PM 10 (PM 2.5) particles at indoor, outdoor inside the university and city site were 319.1 ± 73.04 µg m-3 (200.2 ± 26.39 µg m-3), 95.46±35.12 µg m-3 (72.75 ± 22.24 µg m-3) and 218.32±116.27 µg m-3 (134.13±56.45 µg m-3) however PM 1 particles were 134.84± 12.75 µg m-3 , 55.77±17.85 µg m-3 and 91.86±34.50 µg m-3 respectively. The concentrations of ultrafine particles in indoor were observed higher ~ 64% and 33% as compared to outdoor inside university and city site respectively. The study of PM was conducted in and around BHU premises at five different locations in indoor environments such as recreation room (REC), cooking places (COO), study room (STU), laboratories (LAB) and hospital (HOS); and two outdoor inside university called outdoor locations (OUT) inside the university and four different environments in city called city side (CIT). At COO, the concentrations of PM 10 , PM 2.5 and PM 1 particles were substantially higher (33%, 44% and 49%) during active (cooking) period as compared to non-active period. Also, it was seen that the contributions of fine and ultrafine inhalable were 95 and 91% in active mode whereas 78 and 84% in non-active mode which clearly indicate the impact of human activity. In another monitoring study inside the HOS, the concentrations of PM (PM 10 : 785 μg m-3 , PM 2.5 : 325 μg m-3 and PM 1 : 115 μg m-3) were significantly higher than that of other indoor site as ~ 85% (REC), 44% (COO), 76% (STU) and 90% (LAB) measurements in university. In day and night-time variability of PM inside university campus, it indicate substantially higher (~16%) concentrations during night-time as compared to daytime. In over all, the present study indicate that hospital and cooking places are major risk for human health and an action is to be taken to reduce the concentrations of PM at these two places inside the university by improving proper ventilation system and change of fuel quality respectively. In comparison with university campus and city side, a large variability was seen in PM due to the availability of plants in university campus which are the main reason to maintain lower concentrations of PM as compared to city site.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Copyright of this article belongs to Earth Science India
Subjects: Meteorology and Climatology
Depositing User: IITM Library
Date Deposited: 30 Jul 2016 13:54
Last Modified: 30 Jul 2016 13:54

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