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Variability of the TRMM-PR total and convective and stratiform rain fractions over the Indian region during the summer monsoon

Pokhrel, S and Sikka, DR (2013) Variability of the TRMM-PR total and convective and stratiform rain fractions over the Indian region during the summer monsoon. Climate Dynamics, 41 (1). pp. 21-44.

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Level 3 (3A25) TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) data are used for 13 years period (1998-2010) to prepare climatology of TRMM PR derived near surface rain (Total rain) and rain fractions for the 4-months duration of Indian Summer Monsoon season (June-September) as well as for individual months. It is found that the total rain is contributed mostly (99 ) by two rain fractions i.e. stratiform and convective rain fractions for the season as well as on the monthly basis. It is also found that total rain estimates by PR are about 65 of the gauge measured rain over continental India as well as on sub-regional basis. Inter-annual variability of TRMM-PR rain estimates for India mainland and its sub-regions as well as over the neighboring oceanic regions, in terms of coefficient of variability (CV) is discussed. The heaviest rain region over north Bay of Bengal (BoB) is found to have the lowest CV. Another sub-region of low CV lies over the eastern equatorial Indian ocean (EEIO). The CVs of total rain as well as its two major constituents are found to be higher on monthly basis compared to seasonal basis. Existence of a well known dipole between the EEIO and the north BoB is well recognized in PR data also. Significant variation in PR rainfall is found over continental India between excess and deficit monsoon seasons as well as between excess and deficit rainfall months of July and August. Examination of rainfall fractions between the BoB and Central India on year to year basis shows that compensation in rainfall fractions exists on monthly scale on both the regions. Also on the seasonal and monthly scales, compensation is observed in extreme monsoon seasons between the two regions. However, much less compensation is observed between the north BoB and EEIO belts in extreme rain months. This leads to speculation that the deficit and excess seasons over India may result from slight shift of the rainfall from Central India to the neighboring oceanic regions of north BoB. Contribution of stratiform and convective rain fractions have been also examined and the two fractions are found to contribute almost equally to the total rain. Results are further discussed in terms of the possible impact of the two rain fractions on circulation based on possible difference is vertical profiles of latent heat of two types of rain. Substantial differences in the lower and upper tropospheric circulation regimes are noticed in both deficit and excess monsoon months/seasons, emphasizing the interaction between rainfall (latent heat) and circulation.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Copyright of this article belongs to Springer.
Uncontrolled Keywords: annual variation; atmospheric circulation; climatology; convective system; latent heat flux; monsoon; precipitation assessment; precipitation intensity; raingauge; stratiform cloud; TRMM; troposphere, Bay of Bengal; India; Indian Ocean
Subjects: Meteorology and Climatology
Depositing User: IITM Library
Date Deposited: 17 Jun 2014 07:30
Last Modified: 17 Jun 2014 07:30

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