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Chemical characterization of atmospheric particulate matter in Delhi, India, part II: Source apportionment studies using PMF 3.0

Tiwari, S and Pervez, S and Cinzia, P and Bisht, DS and Kumar, A and Chate, DM (2013) Chemical characterization of atmospheric particulate matter in Delhi, India, part II: Source apportionment studies using PMF 3.0. Sustainable Environment Research, 23 (5). pp. 295-306.

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Abstract

World Bank reports Delhi as a second most polluted megacity in the world for particulates pollution. In Delhi, PM10 (d ≤ 10 μm) aerosol samples were monitored throughout 2008 and their characterization for major chemical elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Sr, Ba, Pb, Cd, Sn and Sb) and ions (Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+) have been documented in an earlier study. To resolve complexity in source apportionment for chemical constituents in PM10, UNMIX 6.0 and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF 3.0) models are applied. Four factors were derived to explain routine sources of PM10 (crustal origin, road-traffic and secondary aerosols). Factor-1, designated as road-traffic source, has been determined by temporal correlation among Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni and V with strong correlation between Pb and Zn. This source factor-1 has shown more than 60% contribution to receptor site. Factor-2, referred as crustal origin due to strong inter-relationship among Si, Fe, Al, Ca and Mg, has also shown to be significant contribution to similar species in receptor matrix. Factor-3 ( NH4+, NO3-) has been differentiated due to contribution of secondary aerosols in the receptor region. This factor-3 has indicated major fraction of these ionic species for their uniform percentage variability, where mean values have been projected close to 75th percentile. Surprisingly, source factor-4 has explained the specific chloride source in the region with major contribution of 86%. For policymakers, results presented would serve as benchmark of source apportionments in Delhi.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Copyright of this article belongs to Sustainable Environment Research
Subjects: Meteorology and Climatology
Depositing User: IITM Library
Date Deposited: 18 Nov 2015 05:51
Last Modified: 18 Nov 2015 05:51
URI: http://moeseprints.incois.gov.in/id/eprint/2884

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