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Decrease in evaporation over the Indian monsoon region: Implication on regional hydrological cycle

Padmakumari, B and Jaswal, AK and Goswami, BN (2013) Decrease in evaporation over the Indian monsoon region: Implication on regional hydrological cycle. Climatic Change, 121 (4). pp. 787-799.

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Abstract

Using surface observations from 58 widely distributed stations over India, a highly significant (99.9 ) decreasing trend of pan evaporation (Epan) of 9.24 mm/a/a is calculated for 1971 to 2010. This constitutes a ~10 reduction of Epan over the last four decades. While Epan is decreasing during the wet summer monsoon season (JJAS), as well as during the dry rest of the year, the rate of decrease during the dry season is much larger than that during the wet season. Apart from increasing solar dimming, surface winds are also persistently decreasing over the Indian sub-continent at the rate of -0.02 m/s/a resulting in ~40 reduction over the last four decades. Based on PenPan model, it is shown that both the above factors contribute significantly to the decreasing trend in Epan. On a continental scale, annual mean potential evaporation (Ep) is larger than rainfall (P or Ep-P > 0, moisture divergence) indicating that India is water-limited. However, during wet monsoon P > Ep (or Ep-P < 0, moisture convergence) indicating that India is energy-limited during this season. Long term data shows that annually Ep-P follows a significant decreasing trend indicating that water limitation is decreasing with time. This is largely due to stronger decreasing trend of Ep-P during the dry season compared to weaker increasing trend of Ep-P during the wet monsoon season. The scatter plot of Ep-P versus Ep also conveys that the decrease in Ep leads to increase in moisture convergence in wet season and decrease in moisture divergence in dry season.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Copyright of this article belongs to Springer
Uncontrolled Keywords: Continental scale; Hydrological cycles; Moisture convergence; Monsoon season; Pan evaporation; Potential evaporation; Summer monsoon; Surface observation, Drought; Evaporation; Moisture, Atmospheric thermodynamics, dry season; hydrological cycle; monsoon; numerical model; potential evapotranspiration, India
Subjects: Meteorology and Climatology
Depositing User: IITM Library
Date Deposited: 12 Nov 2015 09:09
Last Modified: 12 Nov 2015 09:09
URI: http://moeseprints.incois.gov.in/id/eprint/2866

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