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Extreme monsoons over East Asia: Possible role of Indian Ocean Zonal Mode

Kripalani, RH and Oh, JH and Kang, JH and Sabade, SS and Kulkarni, A (2005) Extreme monsoons over East Asia: Possible role of Indian Ocean Zonal Mode. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 82 (1-2). pp. 81-94.

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The influence of the Indian Ocean Zonal Mode on the extreme summer monsoon rainfall over East Asia (China, Korea, Japan) has been investigated applying simple statistical techniques of correlation and composite analysis. While the observed rainfall data are used as a measure of rainfall activity, the NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis data are used to examine the circulation features associated with the extreme monsoon phases and the dynamics of the zonal mode- monsoon variability connections. The data used covers the period 1960 to 2000. The equatorial Indian Ocean is dominated by westerly winds blowing towards Indonesia. However, during the positive phase of the zonal mode, an anomalous, intensified easterly flow prevails, consistent with the positive (negative) sea surface temperature anomalies over the western (southeastern) equatorial Indian Ocean. This positive phase of the zonal mode enhances summer monsoon activity over China, but suppresses the monsoon activity over the Korea-Japan sector, 3 to 4 seasons later. The relationship is more consistent and stronger over the Korea-Japan region than over China. The Indian Ocean influences the monsoon variability over East Asia via the northern hemisphere mid-latitudes or via the eastern Indian Ocean/west Pacific route. The monsoon-desert mechanism induces strong subsidence northwest of India due to the anomalous convection over the Indian Ocean region associated with the positive phase of the zonal mode. This induces a zonal wave pattern over the mid-latitudes of Asia propagating eastwards and displacing the north Pacific subtropical high over East Asia. The warming over the eastern Indian Ocean/west Pacific inhibits the westward extension of the north Pacific sub-tropical high. The location and shape of this high plays a dominant role in the monsoon variability over East Asia. The memory for delayed impact, three to four seasons later, could be carried by the surface boundary conditions of Eurasian snow cover via the northern channel or the equatorial SSTs near the Indonesian Through Flow via the southern channel.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Copyright of this article belongs to Springer
Uncontrolled Keywords: monsoon; precipitation assessment, Indian Ocean; oceanic regions; World
Subjects: Meteorology and Climatology
Depositing User: IITM Library
Date Deposited: 04 Apr 2015 04:27
Last Modified: 04 Apr 2015 04:27

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